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This study evaluated the effect of desiccation, and identified injuries and predation by insects in diaspores of “canelabatalha” (Cryptocarya aschersoniana Mez.) by using X-rays. The damages caused by desiccation were measured in the images and related to the formation of seedlings. Right after fruit depulping, the diaspores (endocarp plus seed) (45 % moisture content – MC and 37 % germination) were dried in acclimatized room (20 °C and 60 % RH), inside of plastic trays in a single layer. Later, in order to speed up the drying process, they were placed in drying boxes with saturated solution of sodium hydroxide (28 % RH) and sampled with 45, 37, 35, 31 and 26 % MC. For the X-rays, an intensity of radiation of 40 KVp was used and the time of exposition of 1.5 min. The radiographies were then photographed and the images analyzed in computer, being measured the separation between endocarp and the seed. The diaspores were classified as intact; with partial separation; with total separation and predated. The germination tests were carried out on sand, in incubators Mangelsdorf at 25 °C and constant white light. The results showed that the germination is affected when the diaspore MC reaches values below 26 %. In this point, the separation between endocarp and the seed is 0.65 mm. There was a positive correlation between the viability of the seeds, evaluated through germination tests and the separation between endocarp and the seed, observed through X-rays. The radiographic analysis helps identify damage caused by predation after insect infestation.